Handbook of Employee Selection

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Автор: James L. Farr; Nancy T. Tippins

Название: Handbook of Employee Selection

Язык: English

Издательство: New York: Routledge

Год: 2010

Формат: pdf

Размер: 10,7 mb

Страниц: 1030

The Handbook of Employee Selection summarizes the state of science and practice in the field of employee selection. Chapters in this book cover issues associated with measurement such as validity and reliability as well as practical concerns around the development of appropriate selection procedures and implementation of selection programs. Several chapters discuss the measurement of various constructs commonly used as predictors, and other chapters confront criterion measures that are used in test validation. Ethical and legal concerns are dealt with in another set of chapters and highlight the concerns of the employer as well as the test taker and the psychologist responsible for the testing program. Final sections of the book include chapters that focus on testing for certain types of jobs (e.g., blue collar jobs, supervisory jobs) and describe important milestones in the development of selection programs.

 

Preface....................................................................................xix

Editors....................................................................................xxi

Contributors.............................................................................xxiii

Chapter 1 Handbook of Employee Selection: An Introduction and Overview....................1

James L. Farr and Nancy T. Tippins

Brief History of Science- and Data-Based Employee Selection.....................1

Structure of Handbook of Employee Selection.....................................3

References......................................................................6

PART 1 Foundations of Psychological Measurement and Evaluation Applied to Employee Selection

John P. Campbell and Frank J. Landy, Section Editors

Chapter 2 Reliability and Validity.................9

Dan J. Putka and Paul R. Sackett

Overview........................................10

Reliability.....................................11

Role of Measurement Models......................14

Estimation of Reliability.......................22

Emerging Perspectives on Measurement Error ............36

Closing Thoughts on Reliability.................37

Concept of Validity.............................38

References......................................45

Chapter 3 Validation Strategies for Primary Studies.......................................51

Neal W. Schmitt, John D. Arnold, and Levi Nieminen

Nature of Validity............................................................51

Validation in Different Contexts..............................................53

Special Considerations in Criterion-Related Studies...........................59

Concerns About the Quality of the data: Cleaning the Data.....................60

Modes of Decision-Making and the Impact on Utility and Adverse Impact........61

Scientific or Long-Term Perspective: Limitations of Existing Primary. Validation Studies. Including the Current Meta-Analytic Database............64

Conclusions...................................................................67

References....................................................................67

Chapter 4 Work Analysis.................................................................73

Kenneth Pearlman and Juan I. Sanchez

Traditional Selection-Related Applications of Work Analysis................73

A Review of Major Work Analysis Methods and Approaches....................75

Key Work Analysis Practice Issues..........................................83

Frontiers of Work Analysis: Emerging Trends and Future Challenges.........88

Synopsis and Conclusions...................................................94

References.................................................................94

Chapter 5 Current Concepts of Validity, Validation, and Generalizability................99

Jerard F. Kehoe and Kevin R. Murphy

Converging Trends in Psychometrics—Toward a Unified Theory of Validity....100

Reliability. Validity, and Generalizations From Test Scores...............101

Validation Process: Linking Tests With Their Uses.........................102

Generalizing Research-Based Inferences to Implementation Decisions........108

References................................................................120

PART 2 Implementation and Management of Employee Selection Systems in Work Organizations

Jerard F. Kehoe and Robert E. Ployhart, Section Editors

Chapter 6 Attracting Job Candidates to Organizations................................127

Ann Marie Ry an and Tanya Delany

Reaching Potential Applicants...........................................127

Sourcing Globally.......................................................130

Technology as a Means of Improving Reach................................133

Considering Strategic Talent Management ................................134

Maintaining Interest....................................................136

Maintaining Interest Around the Globe...................................139

Technology’s Role in Maintaining Interest...............................140

Maintaining the Interest of Targeted Talent.............................141

Accepting Offers........................................................142

Conclusions.............................................................145

References..............................................................146

Chapter 7 Test Administration and the Use of Test Scores............................151

Jeff W. Johnson and Frederick L. Oswald

Use of Test Scores......................................................151

Decisions to Make Before Collecting Test Scores.........................151

Collection of Test Scores...............................................153

Computation of Test Scores..............................................159

Making Selection Decisions.................................................163

Conclusions................................................................166

References.................................................................166

Chapter 8 Technology and Employee Selection.............................................171

Douglas H. Reynolds and David N. Dickter

Introduction: The Changing Relationship Between Industrial-Organizational Psychology and Information Technology....................................171

Critical Issues in Technology-Based Selection..............................176

Implementation Issues......................................................186

Future Directions..........................................................189

References.................................................................192

Chapter 9 Strategy. Selection, and Sustained Competitive Advantage......................195

Robert E. Ployhart and Jeff A. Weekley

Why Personnel Selection Must Show Business-Unit-Level Value................196

SHRM.......................................................................197

Alignment of Selection and Strategy........................................200

Selection’s Potential Contribution to Business Unit Value..................203

Selection’s Symbiotic Relationship With Other HR Activities................208

Conclusions................................................................209

Acknowledgments............................................................209

References.................................................................210

Chapter 10 Managing Sustainable Selection Programs......................................213

Jerard F. Kehoe, Stefan T. Mol, and Neil R. Anderson

Organization Context for Selection.........................................213

Defining Selection System Sustainability...................................214

HR Technology..............................................................225

Conclusions................................................................233

References.................................................................233

Chapter 11 The Business Value of Employee Selection.....................................235

Wayne F. Cascio and Lawrence Fogli

Traditional Model of Employee Selection....................................235

Challenges to the Business Value of the Traditional Approach...............236

Dynamic, Contemporary Approach to Selection as an Organizational

Process..................................................................237

Importance of Social Context and Interpersonal Processes in Selection Decisions................................................................240

Conclusions: How Should We Value the Success of Selection in Organizations?...........................................................248

References.................................................................250

PART 3 Categories of Individual Difference Constructs for Employee Selection

David Chan and Leaetta Hough, Section Editors

Chapter 12 Cognitive Abilities........................................................255

Deniz S. Ones, Stephan Dilchert, Chockalingam Viswesvaran, and Jesus F. Salgado

History. Current Usage, and Acceptability of Cognitive Ability Measures in Employee Selection...................................................255

Definitions and Theoretical Underpinnings.................................258

Structure.................................................................258

Measurement...............................................................259

Criterion-Related Validity Evidence.......................................261

Group Differences on Cognitive Ability Measures...........................264

Future Challenges for Research and Practice...............................269

Epilogue..................................................................270

References................................................................270

Chapter 13 Physical Performance Tests..................................................277

Deborah L. Gebhardt and Todd A. Baker

Job Analysis for Arduous Jobs.............................................277

Physical Performance Tests................................................281

Validity of Physical Performance Tests....................................285

Test Scoring and Administration...........................................287

Legal Issues..............................................................291

Benefits of Physical Testing..............................................294

References................................................................294

Chapter 14 Personality: Its Measurement and Validity for Employee Selection............299

Leaetta Hough and Stephan Dilchert

Structure of Personality Variables........................................299

Measurement Methods.......................................................301

Validity of Personality Constructs and Other Factors That Affect Their Usefulness........................................................308

Conclusions...............................................................312

References................................................................312

Chapter 15 Values. Styles, and Motivational Constructs.................................321

David Chan

Values....................................................................321

Cognitive Styles..........................................................324

Motivational Constructs...................................................327

Practical Considerations and Future Research Challenges...................332

Epilogue..................................................................335

References................................................................336

Chapter 16 Practical Intelligence. Emotional Intelligence, and Social Intelligence....339

Filip Lievens and Dav id Chan

Definitions and Conceptualizations........................................339

Measurement Approaches....................................................344

Conceptual Framework for Examining Practical, Emotional, and

Social Intelligence.....................................................349

Strategies for Future Research............................................351

Epilogue..................................................................354

References................................................................355

PART 4 Decisions in Developing, Selecting, Using, and Evaluating Predictors

Ann Marie Ryan and Neal W. Schmitt, Section Editors

Chapter 17 Decisions in Developing and Selecting Assessment Tools.....................363

Nancy T. Tippins, Jone M. Papinchock, and Emily C. Solberg

Introduction..............................................................363

Which Constructs Should Be Measured?......................................364

How Should the Constructs Be Measured?....................................366

How Should Validity Evidence Be Gathered?.................................371

How Should Scores Be Used?................................................373

Conclusions...............................................................375

References................................................................375

Chapter 18 Administering Assessments and Decision-Making...............................377

R. Stephen Wander, Lisa L. Thomas, and Zupei Luo

Unproctored Internet Testing..............................................377

Combination of Candidate Information: The Role of the Decision-Maker......390

Conclusions...............................................................396

References................................................................396

Chapter 19 Evaluation of Measures: Sources of Error. Sufficiency, and Contamination....399

Michael J. Zickar, Jose M. Cortina, and Nathan T. Carter

Reliability...............................................................400

Validity..................................................................402

Sources of Invariance: A Handful of Hypotheses............................407

CFA MI/E in Selection Research............................................411

Conclusions...............................................................413

References................................................................414

Chapter 20 Assessment Feedback.........................................................417

Manuel London and Lynn A. McFarland

Some Case Examples........................................................417

Feedback and Professional Standards......................................419

Applicants' Reactions to Feedback........................................420

Benefits and Costs of Feedback...........................................426

Implications for Practice................................................431

Implications for Research................................................433

Conclusions..............................................................434

References...............................................................434

PART 5 Criterion Constructs in Employee Selection

Kevin R. Murphy and Elaine D. Pulakos, Section Editors

Chapter 21 The Measurement of Task Performance as Criteria in Selection Research.......................................................439

Walter C. Borman, Rebecca H. Bryant, and Jay Dorio

Objective Criteria.......................................................439

Subjective Criteria......................................................441

Dimensionality of Job Performance........................................447

Predictors of Task Performance Dimensions................................454

References...............................................................458

Chapter 22 Adaptive and Citizenship-Related Behaviors at Work.........................463

David W. Dorsey, Jose M. Cortina, and Joseph Lucliman

Conceptualization........................................................463

Adaptive Behavior Defined................................................463

Citizenship Defined......................................................465

Individual Difference Predictors.........................................468

Measurement..............................................................474

Moderators and Mediators—Adaptability....................................476

Moderators and Mediators—Citizenship.....................................477

Impact on Organizational Outcomes........................................479

Too Much of a Good Thing?................................................480

Conclusions..............................................................481

References...............................................................482

Chapter 23 Counterproductive Work Behavior and Withdrawal.............................489

Maria Rotundo and Paul E. Spector

Nature of CWB............................................................489

Assessment of CWB........................................................491

Potential Antecedents of CWB.............................................492

Environment..............................................................499

Person and Environment...................................................502

Consequences.............................................................503

Future Directions........................................................505

Conclusions..............................................................506

References...............................................................506

Chapter 24 Defining and Measuring Results of Workplace Behavior.......................513

Elaine D. Pulakos and Ryan S. O’Leary

Measuring Workplace Behavior Versus Results...............................514

Defining Individual Performance Objectives................................516

Challenges Associated With Developing Individual Objectives and

Mitigation Strategies...................................................519

Measuring Results of Performance Objectives...............................522

Challenges Associated With Measuring Results and Mitigation Strategies....524

Individual Difference Predictors of Results...............................526

Conclusions...............................................................527

References................................................................528

Chapter 25 Employee Work-Related Health. Stress, and Safety............................531

Lois E. Tetrick, Pamela L. Perrew e, and Mark Griffin

Healthy Workers...........................................................531

Work Stress...............................................................535

Occupational Safety.......................................................541

Conclusions...............................................................545

References................................................................546

Chapter 26 Criterion Validity and Criterion Deficiency: What We Measure

Well and What We Ignore...................................................551

Jeanette N. Cleveland and Adrienne Colella

Work and Workforce in the 21st Century: Outmoded Assumptions and Bases for Change........................................................552

Criterion Problem in 1-0 Psychology.......................................552

Multilevel Issues in Defining Performance and Success.....................558

“Closing In” on Criterion Deficiency: One Approach to Bridging HR Systems With Business Unit Strategy.....................................562

Conclusions...............................................................563

References................................................................564

PART 6 Legal and Ethical Issues in Employee Selection

P. Richard Jeanneret and Paul R. Sackett, Section Editors

Chapter 27 Ethics of Employee Selection................................................571

Joel Lefkowitz and Rodney L. Lawman

Some Meta-Issues..........................................................571

Ethical Principles and Dilemmas...........................................576

Role of Ethical Codes in Professional Practice: Historical and Current

Perspectives............................................................580

Some Specific Issues and Sources of Ethical Problems......................582

Conclusions...............................................................587

References................................................................589

Chapter 28 Professional Guidelines/Standards...........................................593

P. Richard Jeanneret and Sheldon Zedeck

Introduction...............................................................593

Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing........................595

Principles for the Validation and Use of Personnel Selection Procedures....604

Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures........................610

Comparisons Among the Three Authorities....................................615

Final Thoughts.............................................................621

Conclusions................................................................621

References.................................................................623

Chapter 29 A Sampler of Legal Principles in Employment Selection........................627

Frank J. Landy, Arthur Gutman, and James L. Outtz

Introduction...............................................................627

Principles and Exemplar Case Law...........................................629

Conclusions................................................................648

References.................................................................648

Chapter 30 Perspectives From Twenty-Two Countries on the Legal Environment for Selection..............................................................651

Paul R. Sackett, Winny Shen, Brett Myors, arid Colleagues

Data Collection Methodology................................................652

Discussion.................................................................673

Authors’ Note..............................................................675

References.................................................................675

PART 7 Employee Selection in Specific Organizational Contexts

Rick Jacobs and Ann Howard, Section Editors

Chapter 31 Selection and Classification in the U.S. Military............................679

Wayne S. Sellman, Dana H. Born, William J. Strickland, and Jason J. Ross

Military Personnel System..................................................679

Indicators of Recruit Quality..............................................680

Need for Military Selection................................................685

Short History of Military Personnel Testing (Pre-All Volunteer Force)......686

Moving to an All-Volunteer Force...........................................686

ASVAB Misnorming and Job Performance Measurement Project...................688

Enlisted Selection and Classification in Today's Military..................691

Enlistment Process.........................................................692

Recruit Quality Benchmarks and Enlistment Standards........................693

Selection for Officer Commissioning Programs...............................693

Officer Retention and Attrition............................................695

Officer Executive Development..............................................696

Command Selection and Career Broadening Experiences.......................696

Defense Transformation in Military Selection..............................697

Conclusions...............................................................698

References................................................................699

Chapter 32 Public Sector Employment....................................................705

Rick Jacobs and Donna L. Denning

Position Classification in the Public Sector..............................706

Civil Service Examinations................................................706

Linking Tests to Jobs: Validation and Its Many Forms......................708

Creating a Talent Pipeline: Recruiting Candidates.........................711

Promotional Processes: Using What We Know About People and Their

Capabilities to Our Advantage...........................................712

Personnel Decision-Making and Legal Jeopardy..............................714

Conclusions...............................................................718

References................................................................719

Chapter 33 Selection Methods and Desired Outcomes: Integrating Assessment Content and Technology to Improve Entry- and Mid-Level Leadership Performance...............................................................721

Scott C. Erker, Charles J. Cosentino, and Kevin B. Tamanini

Current Business Trends Affecting Leadership Selection and Development....722

Changing Behavioral Requirements for Leaders..............................725

Assessment Tools and Techniques...........................................728

Case Studies of Leadership Selection......................................733

Conclusions...............................................................737

References................................................................738

Chapter 34 Blue-Collar Selection in Private Sector Organizations.......................741

Wanda J. Campbell and Robert A. Ramos

Definition of Blue-Collar Jobs............................................741

Environment...............................................................741

Planning and Developing the Selection Process: Psychometric and Practical Considerations................................................744

Planning and Developing the Selection Process: The Constituents. Their Issues, and Preferences...........................................749

Implementing a Selection Procedure........................................754

Maintaining a Selection Procedure.........................................756

Recruitment and Employee Development......................................759

References................................................................762

Chapter 35 Selection for Service and Sales Jobs........................................765

John P. Hausknecht and Angela M. Langevin

Nature of Service and Sales Work..........................................765

Research on Selection for Service and Sales Workers......................768

Implications for Practice and Future Research............................774

Conclusions...............................................................776

References................................................................776

Chapter 36 Selection in Multinational Organizations....................................781

Paula Caligiuri and Karen B. Paul

Employee Selection in Multinational Organizations.........................781

Challenges of Cross-National Selection and Assessment.....................785

International Assignments: Implications for Employee Selection............789

Conclusions...............................................................795

References................................................................796

Chapter 37 Selection for Team Membership: A Contingency and Multilevel Perspective....801

Susan Mohammed, Jan Cannon-Bow ers, and Su Chuen Foo

Conceptual Framework for Understanding Selection for Team Membership......802

Individual-Level Considerations...........................................804

Team-Level Considerations.................................................809

Discussion................................................................815

Conclusions...............................................................817

References................................................................818

Chapter 38 Selecting Leaders: Executives and High Potentials...........................823

George C. Thornton III, George P. Hollenbeck, and Stefanie K. Johnson

Executives and High Potentials: Who Are They? What Do They Do?............823

Executive Competencies and Attributes.....................................824

Assessment Techniques.....................................................826

Executive Selection in an HRM System......................................830

Performance Reviews: The Role of Top Executives and Boards................830

Fit: Individuals. Team. Outcome. Followers, and Culture...................831

Does It Work?.............................................................833

Conclusions...............................................................834

References................................................................835

PART 8 Milestones in Employee Selection

Walter C. Borman and Benjamin Schneider, Section Editors

Chapter 39 The Management Progress Study and Its Legacy for Selection..................843

Ann Howard

The Foundations of the Assessment Center..................................843

The Beginnings of Managerial Assessment...................................845

Predicting Managerial Success.............................................847

Successful Managers' Development Over Time................................852

AC Advantages and Disadvantages...........................................855

The MPS Selection Legacy ................858

References...............863

Chapter 40 Project A: 12 Years of R & D................................................865

John P. Campbell and Deirdre J. Knapp

Origins of Project A.......................................................865

Enabling of Project A......................................................866

Specific Research Objectives...............................................867

Overall Research Design....................................................867

Research Instrument Development: Predictors................................869

Job Analyses and Criterion Development.....................................873

Modeling the Latent Structure of Performance...............................875

Correlations of Past Performance With Future Performance...................878

Criterion-Related Validation...............................................879

Some Broader Implications..................................................882

Conclusions................................................................884

References.................................................................885

Chapter 41 The Dictionary of Occupational Titles and the Occupational Information Network........................................................887

Norman Peterson and Christopher E. Sager

Milestones.................................................................887

Organizing Framework.......................................................887

DOT........................................................................889

DOT to O*NET™ Transition...................................................894

Development and Testing of a Prototype 0*NET...............................895

O*NET Becomes Operational..................................................899

Conclusions................................................................905

References.................................................................906

Chapter 42 Situational Specificity and Validity Generalization..........................909

Lawrence R. James and Heather H. McIntyre

Situational Specificity....................................................910

VG.........................................................................912

Situational Specificity Response to VG.....................................914

Substantive Tests of Situational Specificity...............................917

Conclusions................................................................918

References.................................................................919

Chapter 43 Employee Selection in Europe: Psychotechnics and the Forgotten History of Modern Scientific Employee Selection..................921

Jesus F. Salgado, Neil R. Anderson, and Ute R. HUlsheger

Introduction...............................................................921

The European Origin of Scientific Employee Selection: The Years of Success (1900-1945)..............................................................921

The Fall of the European Employee Selection Enterprise After World War II: The Years of Decline and Stagnation (1945-1975)..........931

The Resurgence of European Employee Selection: The Years of Optimism and Growth (Since 1975).......................................934

Conclusions..............................................................936

Acknowledgments..........................................................937

References...............................................................937

Chapter 44 Employee Selection: Musings About Its Past. Present, and Future..........943

Robert M. Guion

Psychometric Musings.....................................................943

Musings on the Perpetual Disconnect: Research and Practice...............950

Is Education Really Broadening?..........................................954

A Final Musing...........................................................956

References...............................................................956

Author Index.........................................................................959

Subject Index........................................................................983

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