Peace diplomacy, global justice and international agency: rethinking human security and ethics in the spirit of Dag Hammarskjöld

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Автор: Carsten Stahn; Henning Melber

Название: Peace diplomacy, global justice and international agency: rethinking human security and ethics in the spirit of Dag Hammarskjöld

Язык: English

Издательство: Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press

Год: 2014

Формат: pdf

Размер: 17,6 mb

Страниц: 635

As UN Secretary-General, Dag Hammarskjöld shaped many of the fundamental principles and practices of international organisations, such as preventive diplomacy, the ethics of international civil service, impartiality and neutrality. He was also at the heart of the constitutional foundations and principles of the UN.

This tribute and critical review of Hammarskjöld's values and legacy examines his approach towards international civil service, agency and value-based leadership, investigates his vision of internationalism and explores his achievements and failures as Secretary-General. It draws on specific conflict situations and strategies such as Suez and the Congo for lessons that can benefit contemporary conflict resolution and modern concepts such as human security and R2P. It also reflects on ways in which actors such as international courts, tribunals and the EU can benefit from Hammarskjöld's principles and experiences in the fields of peace and security and international justice.

 

Foreword by Jan Eliasson xii

Acknowledgements xiv

List of abbreviations xvi

1 Human security and ethics in the spirit of Dag Hammarskjöld: an introduction 1

CARSTEN STAHN AND HENNING MELBER

1.1 Introduction I

1.2 Focus and perspectives in this volume 10

1.3 Reflections on Dag Hammarskjöld 12

1.4 Hammarskjold’s intellectual legacy and leadership 14

1.5 Hammarskjöld, the UN and the Congo 18

1.6 The role of the UN Secretary-General 20

1.7 Re-thinking internationalism: intervention, responsibility and the politics of R2P 24

1.8 Hammarskjold’s credo 28

part I Reflections on Dag Hammarskjöld 33

2 Dag Hammarskjöld and the twenty-first century 35

KOFI ANNAN

3 A beacon of hope: Dag Hammarskjöld and the United Nations 43

BRIAN URQUHART

3.1 Introduction 43

3.2 The first political intervention 44

3.3 Major international crises 46

3.4 The legacy 46

3.5 Enhancing UN presence 48

3.6 Long-term development of the UN 49

4 Dag Hammarskjöld 1905-1961: a remarkable man, a remarkable Secretary-General 51

PIETER KOOIJMANS

5 Dag Hammarskjöld, the United Nations and the rule of law in today’s world 56

HANS CORELL

5.1 Dag Hammarskjöld 56

5.2 Reflections on Dag Hammarskjold’s principles 58

5.3 The ethics of an international civil servant in light of Dag Hammarskjold’s thinking 71

5.4 Conclusions 73

part II Hammarskjold’s intellectual legacy and leadership 75

6 Dag Hammarskjöld and the politics of hope 77

MONICA BOUMAN

6.1 Introduction 77

6.2 Context 77

6.3 Hammarskjold’s model of international service 79

6.4 Two cases 89

6.5 Refining the international service model 99

6.6 Conclusion 104

7 Dag Hammarskjold’s spirituality and the quest for negotiated peace, reconciliation and meaning 106

PAUL R. NELSON

7.1 Introduction 106

7.2 Beyond the walls of distrust 108

7.3 The diplomacy of reconciliation 109

7.4 A practice of global ethics of human rights and reconciliation 111

7.5 Hammarskjold’s retrospection of his destiny and meaning of life 114

8 From the unwritten manual: Dag Hammarskjold’s political wisdom 119

ROGER LIPSEY

8.1 Introduction 119

8.2 Begin in the private world 123

8.3 Every day counts, every action 129

9 Hammarskjold’s dynamic approach to the UN Charter and international law 142

OVE BRING

9.1 Introduction 142

9.2 Legal ‘roots’, intellectual background and personal philosophy 143

9.3 In the United Nations 146

9.4 The introduction of peacekeeping 148

9.5 Hammarskjöld on idealism and realism 149

9.6 The issue of UN humanitarian intervention in peace operations, a ‘responsibility to protect’ 152

9.7 Concluding remarks: leadership and legal development 154

10 Hammarskjöld, economic thinking and the United Nations 156

ANNE ORFORD

10.1 Introduction 156

10.2 Dag Hammarskjöld, economist 157

10.3 Liberal economics and the reconstruction of Europe 164

10.4 Decolonisation and the role of the state 175

10.5 Conclusion:‘economic thinking at its best’ 187

part III Hammarskjöld, the UN and the Congo 191

11 Dag Hammarskjöld and the Congo crisis, 1960-1961 193

MARIA STELLA ROGNONI

11.1 Introduction 193

11.2 The opening of the crisis and UN involvement 195

11.3 The Katanga issue and the confrontation with Lumumba 203

11.4 The ousting of Lumumba: new counterparts, old problems 209

11.5 Conclusion 215

12 Continuities of violence in the Congo: legacies of Hammarskjöld and Lumumba 216

HELEN M. HINTJENS AND SERENA CRUZ

12.1 Introduction 216

12.2 The legacy of violence and injustice 220

12.3 Continuity and change in the Congo 224

12.4 Congolese independence unravels: 1960-1961 226

12.5 The sequel: continuing violence in the DRC 231

12.6 A future for peace and justice in the DRC? 235

12.7 Conclusion 237

13 Lumumba vs. Hammarskjöld: a story of confrontation 240

JEAN OMASOMBO TSHONDA

13.1 Introduction 240

13.2 Lumumba: a prototype, and the itinerary of broken dreams 241

13.3 Hammarskjöld or Lumumba 246

13.4 Lumumba face to face with Hammarskjöld 249

13.5 Lumumba names Hammarskjöld as an enemy of the Congo 252

14 Dag Hammarskjöld and Africa’s decolonisation 255

HENNING MELBER

14.1 Introduction 255

14.2 Economic justice 256

14.3 Decolonisation 260

14.4 Intervention in the Congo 264

14.5 The murder of Lumumba 270

14.6 Operation Morthor and Hammarskjöld’s death 273

14.7 Hammarskjöld’s legacy 276

15 The Dag factor: how quiet diplomacy changed the role of the Secretariat during the Congo crisis, 1960-1961 280

ALANNA O’MALLEY

15.1 Introduction 280

15.2 Into the‘Heart of Darkness’ 282

15.3 Cold War, hot tempers 293

15.4 Conclusion: defeating the spectre 299

part IV The role of the UN Secretary-General 303

16 The ‘Suez story*: Dag Hammarskjöld, the United Nations and the creation of UN peacekeeping 305

MANUEL FRÖHLICH

16.1 Introduction 305

16.2 The diplomacy of almost thirteen days 307

16.3 The constitutional structure of UNEF 328

16.4 Conclusion 335

17 Breaking free: Dag Hammarskjöld, good offices and heads of international organisations 341

AOIFE O’DONOGHUE

17.1 Introduction 341

17.2 What are good offices? 343

17.3 UN good offices 346

17.4 Dag Hammarskjöld and good offices 351

17.5 After Dag Hammarskjöld 356

17.6 Conclusion 362

18 Dag Hanimarskjold’s diplomacy: lessons learned 364

PETER WALLENSTEEN

18.1 Hammarskjöld then, Annan later 364

18.2 Conflicts on the UN agenda 367

18.3 Lessons from UN conflict diplomacy 372

18.4 Success in UN crisis diplomacy 378

18.5 Features in Hammarskjold’s diplomacy 380

18.6 The primary lesson: the integrity of the office 385

19 Visions of international life: from Hammarskjöld to Annan and beyond 387

JAN ANNE VOS

19.1 Introduction 387

19.2 Framework 388

19.3 Living constitution 389

19.4 (M)ONU(S)C(O) 392

19.5 Tn Larger Freedom 394

19.6 Divergence and convergence 397

19.7 Conclusion 402

20 EU global peace diplomacy: institutional framework 404

STEVEN BLOCKMANS

20.1 Introduction 404

20.2 The EU as a ‘Chapter VII’ vector of peace 407

20.3 The High Representative: spider in the EU’s institutional web of diplomacy 410

20.4 The EU’s new diplomatic service and toolkit for peace mediation 415

20.5 EU facilitated dialogue between Serbia and Kosovo 426

20.6 Concluding remarks 434

part V Re-thinking internationalism: intervention, responsibility and the politics of R2P 437

21 From ‘conference machinery’ to ‘global administration’? International executive authority beyond Hammarskjöld 439

CARSTEN STAHN

21.1 Introduction 439

21.2 The status quo ante 443

21.3 Hammarskjöld’s conception of international executive authority 452

21.4 Hammarskjöld’s executive authority re-visited 457

21.5 Conclusion 475

22 Hammarskjöld and international executive rule: a third world perspective on international law 477

VIJAYASHRI SRIPATI

22.1 Introduction 477

22.2 International executive rule and shadows of the past 479

22.3 International executive rule and Congo’s constitutional past 484

22.4 UNCAinthepost-ColdWarera 489

22.5 UNCA revisited 496

22.6 Identifying the colonial continuities in UNCA 504

22.7 Conclusion 505 Annex 507

23 Who cares? Dag Hammarskjöld and the limits of responsibility in international law 508

J. CRAIG BARKER

23.1 Introduction 508

23.2 ‘Responsibility’ in international law 510

23.3 Emerging discourses of responsibility in international law 514

23.4 Re-imagining ‘responsibility’ in international law 521

23.5 Conclusion 535

24 Libya, intervention and responsibility: the dawn of a new era? 536

FRANCIS KOFI ABIEW AND NOEMI GAL-OR

24.1 Introduction 536

24.2 Libya and humanitarian intervention 538

24.3 Libya and R2P 544

24.4 Conclusion 556

25 The Arab Uprising and the rise and fall of international human rights 561

LOUISE ARBOUR

25.1 Introduction 561

25.2 Responsibility to protect and the requirement of proportionality 569

25.3 International criminal justice and the independence of the ICC 572

25.4 Conflict prevention as the overarching objective 574

25.5 Conclusion 575

part VI Hammarskjöld’s credo 577

Annex 1 The Secretary-General's Annual Report to the General Assembly of the United Nations, Introduction, 17 August 1961 579

Annex 2 Address given by the Secretary-General, Mr Dag Hammarskjöld, on the Occasion of Staff Day, General Assembly Hall, 8 September 1961 597

Index 601

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